Industrialization and excessive use of pesticides for boosting agricultural production have adversely affected the ecosystem, polluting natural water reserves. Remediation of contaminated water has been an area of concern with numerous techniques being applied to improve the quality of naturally available water to the level suitable for human consumption. Most of these methods, however, generate by-products that are sometimes toxic. Heterogenous photocatalysis using metal oxide nanostructures for water purification is an attractive option because no harmful by-products are created. A discussion on possible methods to engineer metal oxides for visible light photocatalysis is included to highlight the use of solar energy for water purification. Multifunctional photocatalytic membranes are considered advantageous over freely suspended nanoparticles due to the ease of its removal from the purified water. An overview of water remediation techniques is presented, highlighting innovations through nanotechnology for possible addressing of problems associated with current techniques.
Contamination, Water Purification, Photocatalysis, Nanofiltration,